ūüéß ¬†Resources for Each Class Meeting - Spring 2019


Class #9, Monday April 29: Resources for (1) Prokofiev, (2) Shostakovich, and (3) Tchaikovsky

1. PROKOFIEV Violin Concerto No.1 

00:00 - 9:00 - 1st Movement

09:09 - 12:30 - 2nd Movement

12:38 - 21:04 - 3rd Movement

  • Prokofiev‚Äôs¬†Violin Concerto No.1 performed by violinist Hilary Hahn

[00:00] -- 1. Andantino

 [09:07] -- 2. Scherzo: Vivacissimo 

[13:00] -- 3. Moderato -- AndanteÔĽŅ

  • RI Phil soloist Benjamin Beilman: Extensive and charming with Beilman for Violinist.com
  • RI Phil Guest Conductor Alexander Mickelthwaite: Introduction and biography from the Oklahoma City¬†Philharmonic, where he is Music¬†Director.

(2) Shostakovich

  • Musicologist Michael Parloff‚Äôs absorbing and authoritative lecture on the life and music of Dimitri Shostakovich. ¬†¬†

  • Leonard Bernstein Discusses Shostakovich's 9th Symphony:

  • Shostakovich‚Äôs Symphony No.9¬†performed by the Vienna Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein, conductor.¬†

1) Allegro 00:00 

2) Moderato 05:24 

3) Presto 14:40 

4) Largo 17:45 

5) Allegretto 21:54

Symphony No.9 performed by the Mariinsky Theater Orchestra, Valery Gergiev, conductor.   

I. Allegro 00:00 II. Moderato. Adagio 06:20 III. Presto 13:40 IV. Largo 16:25


Class #7 and #8 and #5: , Monday April 15 and Monday 22;Monday April 1: Resources for (1)  Tailleferre (2) Brahms (3) Shostakovich’s Piano Trio #2


  • An introduction to the life and works of Tailleferre from the blogsite Musica Kaleidoskopea.
  • Piano Trio (1916/1978) performed by¬†Massimo Marin, violino Manuel Zigante, violoncello Cristina Ariagno, pianoforte.

1. Allegro animato   2. Allegro vivace [3:57]    3. Moderato [6:56]    4. Trés animé [9:44]


  • A fine, llve performance of Brahms‚Äô Piano Quartet by the¬†Borodin State Quartet, Pavel Nersessian, piano¬†(Alert: Final two minutes not recorded). Click here for a Close Listening Guide for this performamce.¬†

I.     Allegro non troppo  0:00  

II.    Poco Adagio          15:35  

III.   Scherzo: Poco Allegro 26:10 

 IV.  Finale: Allegro       36:30

  • A dramatic performance from the Utrecht International Chamber Music Festival, 2011. Itmar Golan, piano.¬†

I.     Allegro non troppo  0:00  

II.    Poco Adagio          16:37  

III.   Scherzo: Poco Allegro 29:17 

¬†IV. ¬†Finale: Allegro ¬† ¬† ¬† 40:35ÔĽŅ

3. Shostakovich: Piano Trio #2. 

  • From BBC Radio 3: An¬†outstanding audio introduction to Shostakovich and his two Piano trios¬†by musicologist Stephen Johnson. A compelling explanation of the historical and cultural world in which Shostakovich lived and¬†composed, and of his importance to the people of Russia during his lifetime, plus a¬†‚Äėwhat-to-listen-for‚ÄĚ introduction to his Piano Trio #2.¬†

  • From Hyperion Records¬†an introduction to the Piano Trio #2¬†by Robert Phillip about Shostakovich‚Äôs circumstances in 1944, plus a listening¬†guide. (downloadable)¬†
  • An essay on¬†Shostakovich‚Äôs use of Jewish music¬†and on his lifelong efforts in support of Jewish artists and¬†friends. (downloadable)
  • A performance of the¬†Piano Trio No. 2¬†in E minor, Op. 67 (1944) performed by¬†Gidon Kremer [violin], Mischa Maisky [cello], Martha Argerich [piano].

Class #10, Monday May 6: 


Class #1, Monday March 4: 

‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†Excerpts from Yale U. Prof. Craig¬†Wright‚Äôs introduction to Beethoven:

                   ◦ The three periods of Beethoven’s music

                   ◦ The Beethovenian Heroic Sound 

¬†¬†¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†‚󶬆Beethoven as¬†‚ÄėRomantic‚Äô Genius¬† ¬† ¬†¬†

                   ◦ Beethoven’s Deafness and Disability

‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†An outstanding documentary on Beethoven‚Äôs life and music by conductor¬†

         Charles Hazelwood in collaboration with the BBC. 

          Part I      Part II   Part III

  • Beethoven Violin Concerto
    • Program notes¬†from the Kennedy Center¬†with biography and listening guide.
    • Program notes¬†from the NY Philharmonic Orchestra¬†with an interesting history of performances and early performers. (pdf¬†version, downloadable)
    • A thorough historical introduction to the concerto, its genesis, its initial critical reception, its performance history, and its recording history from¬†Classical Notes by Peter Gutmann¬†
    • An interesting interpretation on the role of improvisation in the performance of the concerto by¬†violinist¬†Patricia Kopatchinskaja.¬†(pdf¬†version, downloadable)¬†(See¬†Kopatchinskaja‚Äôs performance, below)¬†


  • A performance by¬†Jascha Heifitz with the Boston Symphony¬†Orchestra, Carl Munch conductor

Beethoven - Violin Concerto in D, Op.61 (Color-Coded Analysis)

A interpretation class on Beethoven's Violin Concerto with Benjamin Zander.

  • A unique performance by¬†Patricia Kopatchinskaja, with the Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra Philippe Herreweghe, ¬†conductor.

Fritz Kreisler Cadenza’s for Beethoven’s Violin Concerto

  • Kreisler playing his cadenza for Beethoven concerto. ¬†

  • ¬†Kreisler cadenza for Beethoven violin concerto, 3rd mvt: 1716 Stradivari "ex-Milstein‚ÄĚ, played by violinist Nathan Cole

Class #2, Monday March 11: 

Janacek, Kat'a Kabanova Overture

  • An introduction by composer/pianist¬†Nicolas Reveles to¬†Katya Kabanova, one of the most evocative works by Czech composer Leos Jan√°cek.¬†
  • A performance by the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Charles Mackarres,¬†Conductor

Anton Dvorak, Symphony #5

    • Allegro ma non troppo¬†0:01¬†
    • Andante con moto (attacca)¬†9:06¬†
    • Allegro scherzando¬†16:53¬†
    • Finale. Allegro molto¬†24:20ÔĽŅ

Class #4, Monday March 25:  

  • The website of the¬†Italian Saxophone Quartet
  • ¬†Resources to prepare for the Italian Saxophone‚Äôs performance of pieces by: Astor Piazzolla, Antonio Vivaldi, Gioachino Rossini, Pedro Iturralde, Jean Francaix, W.A. Mozart, Michael Nyman


  • A¬†biography and introduction¬†to Piazzolla‚Äôs style and musical achievements from AllMusic
  • The¬†Piazzolla.org website, with links to everything Piazzolla from his bio, to recordings, to latest news, etc.¬†
  • Histoire du Tango¬†performed by the¬†Adelphi Saxophone Quartet

  • Oblivion¬†performed by the Italian Saxophone Orchestra

  • ¬† ¬†Libertango¬†perfomed in rehearsal by the Italian Saxophone Quartet

  • The original video of¬†Libertango¬†by Astor Piazzolla.

VIVALDI: La Tempesta di Mare, 1728

  • Part I performed by the Italian Saxophone Quartet

ROSSINI: Sonata a Quattro No. 3 

  • Sonata a Quarttro, no. 3,¬†part 1, performed by the Italian Saxophone Quartet

PEDRO ITURALLDE: Suite Hellenique for Saxophone Quartet 

  • A¬†brief biography¬†of Iturralde from Wikipedia
  • Program notes¬†from the Pacific Conservatory of Music that includes an introduction to the Italian Saxophone Quartet and descriptons of many pieces we will hear, including Iturralde‚Äôs¬†Suite Hellene (downloadable)
  • The Suite performed by the Russian Saxophone Quartet

  • The Suite performed by the Italian Saxophone Quartet

JEAN FRANCAIX: Petit Quatuor pour Saxophones performed by the Italian Saxophone Quartet


             I. Gaguenardise 00:00 - 02:23;  

             II. Cantilène 02:24 - 04:40; 

             III. Sérénade Comique 04:41 - 07:23

WA MOZART:  Adagio from Serenade No. 10 for Winds, K. 361 

  • Performed by the Wind Ensemble of the London Symphony Orchestra

MICHAEL NYMAN: Songs for Tony performed by the Italian Saxophone Quartet

Class #3 & #6, Monday April 8: 

Resources for  (1) Rossini. (2) Mascagni. (3) Respighi. (4) Puccini.

1. Gioachino Rossini: William Tell Overture

2. Pietro Mascagni: Intermezzo from Cavalleria Rusticana

  • Brief biography with focus on the writing of¬†Cavalleria Rusticana¬†from Classic¬†fM¬†
  • A brief introduction to the opera and its place in opera history, followed by a plot summary,¬†from Opera Online.
  • Program notes for the¬†Intermezzo¬†from the¬†Grant Park Music Festival of Chicago¬†(downloadable).¬†
  • A performance of the¬†Intermezzo¬†from¬†Cavallieria¬†Rusticana¬†by the Evergreen symphony,¬†Lim Kek-tjiang, conductor.¬†¬†


  • A brief, accurate biographical overview of Respighi‚Äôs life and musical achievements from the¬†Bach Cantatas Website.¬†
  • A webpage with a trove of photos, plus a list of terrific links for¬†in-depth content on Respighi from a variety of writers,¬†and scroll all the way down for ¬†a well-written,¬†interesting¬†biography by David Heald¬†from MusicWeb International¬†(scroll all the way down).¬†
  • A BBC documentary on¬†Resphighi‚Äôs life and a survey of all of his music.¬†
  • A performance of the¬†Roman Festivals¬†by the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Loren Maazel,¬†conductor.¬†¬†

00:00 - 04:45 The Circenses and the Circus Maximus (in Roman times): A threatening sky hangs over the Circus Maximus. The howling of wild beasts mingles with the strains of a religious chant sung by the martyrs as they are led into the arena. 

04:50 - 12:00 The Jubilee (in Late Medieval times): Pilgrims trail along the highway praying. Finally they see the Holy City. "Rome! Rome!" they cry and a hymn of praise bursts forth.

12:05 - 19:35 The October Festival (in Renaissance times): In the Roman 'Castelli' we hear echoes of the hunt, tinkling bells, songs of love and a romantic serenade from a mandolin.

19:40 - 25:28¬†The EpiphanyÔĽŅ (in early Modern times):¬†The night before Epiphany in the Piazza Navona. A frantic clamour of saltarellos, barrel-organs, popular songs and drunken revellers with their hoarse cries of "We are Romans! Let us pass!‚ÄĚ

4. Puccini:

  • O mio babbino caro from¬†Gianni Schicchi


  • ¬†¬†
  • Nessun dorma from¬†Turandot:¬†a performance by Luciano Pavarotti
  • ¬†¬†
  • Addio, fiorito asil from¬†Madama Butterfly:¬†performed by¬†Pl√°cido Domingo

  • ¬† Un bel d√¨ vedremo¬† from¬†Madama Butterfly¬†performed by Kiri Te Kanawa

  • ¬† Vogliatemi bene from¬†Madama Butterfly¬†peformed by¬†Ying Huang and ¬†Richard Troxell¬†


Fall 2018 - Completed Class Sessions 

Class #1. Wednesday September 5:  

Resources for: Philip Glass and his Violin Concerto #1. 

      Movement #2                 Movement #3

Class #2. Monday September 17:

Resources for: (1) Bach/Stokowski: Toccata and Fugue in D minor. (2) Torke, his Bright Blue Music., and on the phenomenon of synesthesia  (3) Mussorgsky (4) Mussorgsky/Ravel’s Pictures at an Exhibition (5) Conductor Anu Tali

(1) Bach/Stokowski: Toccata and Fugue in D minor. 


(2) Torke’s Bright Blue Music: A performance by the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, David Zinman conducting.

(3) Mussorgsky biographies and  . . .

(4) Mussorgsky/Ravel’s Pictures at an Exhibition 

(5) Conductor Anu Tali:

Class #3. Monday September 24 and Class #4. Monday October 1:

Resources for:  Introduction to George Gershwin (2) Gershwin’s Cuban Overture and Rhapsody in Blue. (3) Gershwin’s I Got Rhythm Variations (plus Howard Goodall’s video on Rhythm). (4)  Introduction to Aaron Diehl

(1) Introduction to George Gershwin and program notes for the concert selections.  

(2) Performances of Gershwin’s Cuban Overture:

(3) Performances of Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue. 

(3) Gershwin’s I Got Rhythm Variations. 

(4)  Introduction to pianist Aaron Diehl: His website, with information and performance clips. 

Class #5. Monday October 15: 

Resources for: (1) Introduction to Paul Hindemith. (2) Hindemith’s Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria Von Weber  (3) Hindemith’s Kammermusik No. 1 (4) Bonus resources on dissonance, counterpoint, and Hindemith’s harmonic system. 

 (1) Introduction to Paul Hindemith. 

(2) Hindemith’s Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria Von Weber  

      (Mvt 1) Piano, 4 hands, op. 60 No. 253,        (Mvt 2) Turnadot theme, op 37, 

      (Mvt 3) Andantino for piano, op. 10/2,           (Mvt 4) Maestoso for piano op. 60/7

(3) Hindemith’s Kammermusik No. 1

    di Santa Cecilia, Rome.

Bonus resources: 

Class #6. Monday October 22: 

Resources for:  Beethoven’s Leonora Overture No. 3, op. 72b

This is an excerpt from a rehearsal filmed in 1968 in which Leopold Stokowski, then nearly 86 years old, conducted Beethoven's Overture 'Leonore' No. 3. The location was the new Madison Square Gardens concert hall in New York and the orchestra was the American Symphony, founded by Stokowski himself in 1962. (This particular extract come from a 1970 TV documentary entitled "Stokowski at 88" which accounts for the narration and end credits.)  

Class #7. Monday October 29:  

Resources for: (1) Introduction to Edward Elgar. (2) Elgar Cello Concerto  

 (1) Introduction to Edward Elgar. 

     Part I,      Part II,   Part III, Part IV

(2) Elgar Cello Concerto  

  • A performance with Jacqueline DuPre, cello, and Sir John Barbirolli conducting the London Symphony Orchestra.¬†¬†link to the video. Movement 1 starts at: ¬†0:13;¬† ¬† ¬†Movement 2 starts at:¬†8:03;¬† ¬† ¬†Movement 3 starts at:¬†12:35;¬†Movement 4 starts at: ¬†17:45ÔĽŅ. ¬†

Class #8. Monday November 5:  

Resources for: (1) Introduction to Ralph Vaughn Williams. (2) A sampling of Vaughn Williams' various musical styles. (3) Vaughn Williams' Dona Nobis Pacem.  


(1) Introduction to Ralph Vaughn Williams.

(2) A sampling of Vaughn Williams' various musical styles:

(3) Vaughn Williams' Dona Nobis Pacem.  

00:00 - I. 'Agnus Dei' (Lento) 

03:59 - II. 'Beat! beat! drums!' (Allegro moderato) 

07:55 - III. Reconciliation (Allegro moderato) 

15:05 - IV. Dirge for Two Veterans (Moderato alla marcia) 

26:42 - V. 'The Angel of Death has been abroad' (L'istesso tempo) 

30:10 - VI. 'O man greatly beloved’

Fall 2018 resources 

Class #9. Monday November 19: 

Resources for: (1) ¬†MartinŇĮ:¬†Nonet No. 2, H. 374. (2) Nielsen:¬†Serenata in vano, FS 68. (3) Strauss/Hasen√∂hrl: ¬†Till Eulenspiegel einmal anders, a frolic, op. 28. (4) Spohr:¬†Nonet in F Major, op. 31

(1) MartinŇĮ: Nonet No. 2, H. 374.¬†

(2) Carl Nielsen: Serenata in vano, FS 68.

  • Nielsen composed the¬†Serenata in vano¬†in 1914 for clarinet, bassoon, horn, cello and bass.¬†
  • A readable and helpful¬†biography¬†plus a few interesting links from AllMusic.¬†
  • A¬†very thorough biography¬†from Wikipedia.
  • Nielsen‚Äôs words about the Serenata in Vano:¬†"Serenata in vano is a humorous trifle," Nielsen wrote. "First (from 0:00 - 4:00), the gentlemen play in a somewhat chivalric and showy manner to lure the fair one out onto the balcony, but she does not appear. Then they play in a slightly languorous strain (Poco adagio, from 4:00 - 6:20), but that hasn't any effect either. Since they have played in vain (in vano), they don't care a straw and shuffle off home to the strains of the little final march (6:30 - 8:20), which they play for their own amusement."
  • A performance¬†by an unidentified chamber group.¬†

(3) Strauss/Hasenöhrl:  Till Eulenspiegel einmal anders, a frolic, op. 28.

  • Richard Strauss composed¬†Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche¬†(Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks), Op. 28 in 1894 - 1895.¬†Hasen√∂hrl composed his verson¬†for horn, violin, clarinet, cello & double bass in 1954.
  • Here is¬†an introduction to Hasenohrl from Joseph Stevenson at AllMusic, with an explanation of the way he adapted Strauss' piece for a large symphony orchestra into a charming piece for woodwinds and string quintet. (Downloadable)
  • Here are two videos (¬†#1¬†¬†#2) that tell the story of¬†Till Eulenspiegel, the Merry Prankster. Each video ties the story to the musical themes of Strauss‚Äô¬†¬†symphonic poem, "Till Eulenspiegel.‚Ä̬†Both previews are worth viewing.¬†
  • Here is an outstanding performance of the¬†chamber music version of Strauss‚Äô symphonic tone¬†poem, "Till Eulenspiegel‚ÄĚ. Tthe performance is from the Curtis Institute with¬†Nadir Khashimov - violin, Juyong You - clarinet, Nate West - double bass, ¬†Catherine Chen - bassoon, Austin Larson - horn.¬†

(4) Louis Spohr: Nonet in F major op. 31

00:00 - I. Allegro 

08:07 - II. Scherzo (allegro) 

15:14 - III. Adagio 

22:33 - IV. Finale (vivace)

Class #10. Monday November 26: 

Resources for: (1) R. Strauss, Burleske.  (2) Hector Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique. (3) Beethoven Symphony #4. 

(1) R. Strauss, Burleske.  

(2) Hector Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique. 

15:00 2nd Movement

21:24 3rd Movement 

38:30 4th Movement 

43:13¬†5th MovementÔĽŅ

(3) Beethoven Symphony #4. 

00:00-   03:30  introduction

03:30 - 15:05   first movement

15:20 -  25:25  second movement

25:40 -  31:35  third movement 

31:50 -  38:32 fourth movement 



Interesting extras from past semesters: 

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†An outstanding documentary on Beethoven‚Äôs life and music by conductor¬†

         Charles Hazelwood in collaboration with the BBC. 

          Part I      Part II   Part III


(1) Mahler’s Symphony #1 (Titan)

¬† ¬† ‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†Documentary of Mahler‚Äôs life and music,¬†‚ÄúOrigins and Legacy,‚Ä̬†¬†

        from Keeping Score, a series by Michael Tilson Thomas and 

        the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra.

(1) Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. 92

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†‚Äʬ†¬†¬†¬†Program notes from the¬†Kennedy Center


¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†A history and listening guide by¬†Michael Tilson Thomas.¬†

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†Leonard Bernstein discusses¬†Beethoven‚Äôs melodic style¬†

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†Excerpts from Yale U. Prof. Craig¬†Wright‚Äôs introduction to Beethoven:

                   ◦ The three periods of Beethoven’s music

                   ◦ The Beethovenian Heroic Sound 

¬†¬†¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†‚󶬆Beethoven as¬†‚ÄėRomantic‚Äô Genius¬† ¬† ¬†¬†

                   ◦ Beethoven’s Deafness and Disability

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†A video documentary by¬†Howard Goodall on Bernstein‚Äôs¬†

        musical career and its importance in 20th century music 

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†From the¬†NYTimes‚Äô music critic Anthony Tommasini,¬†
        an overview of Bernstein’s three symphonies.

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†From musicologist Dr. Philip Gentry (UDelaware),¬†

          an in-depth analysis of the symphony and its political-cutural moment, 

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† "A Great American Symphony during McCarthyism.‚Ä̬†

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†From class member Tom Backman, a list of links to videos¬†

          of Bernstein teaching, lecturing and/or conducting. 

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†Prokofiev‚Äôs Life in Context, an¬†introductory lecture by Harlow Robinson¬†

            for the Boston Symphony. Part I,  Part II   


Korngold’s Violin Concerto in D maj. Op. 35

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬† A short documentary on the¬†life, career and music of Korngold.

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬† A ¬†BBC documentary on the impact of¬†

          Korngold’s music on Hollywood films, narrated by 

          conductor Leonard Slatkin,  whose family’s story is intertwined 

          with Korngold’s.  (Note: This video lacks sound for the 1st minute and half.)      

¬† ¬† ‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬† ¬†A listening guide from the¬†London Symphony Orchestra,¬†

          "Korngold's Violin Concerto: From the Silver Screen to 

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†the Concert Hall‚ÄĚ ¬†(with audio clips)

¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†¬† ¬†Violinist Stefan Jackiw explains the themes and bowing choices¬†

          for the first phrases of the concerto.

¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†¬† ¬†Violinist Hilary Hahn talks about¬†playing of the final¬†movement

          of the concerto. 


Beethoven's Quartet in B-Flat Major, op. 130, with Grosse Fuge op. 133e

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†An outstanding lecture from the Chamber Music Society at Lincoln Center (NYC)

         given by Michael Parloff, musicologist, conductor and flautist, 

         on Beethoven’s String Quartet opus #130 and the Grosse Fuge.   

         The relevant part of the lecture on the quartet begins at minute 26:00. The part 

          of the lecture on the Grosse Fuge begins at minute 48:00. 

¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†Program¬†Notes for Op. 130 from¬†Melvin Berger‚Äôs¬†A Guide to Chamber Music¬†

¬† ¬† ¬† ‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†An in-depth listening guide to¬†Quartet #13¬†op. 130 from the¬†Brentano Quartet¬†¬† ¬† ¬†

¬†¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†‚ÄĘ ¬†¬†¬†An in-depth listening guide to the¬†Grosse Fugue from¬†Earsense.¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†

© Linda K. Shamoon 2013